Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a sleep disorder that includes waxing and waning episodes of severe sleepiness during which a person has difficulty with thinking, behavior, and psychiatric issues. These episodes also include very long sleep—up to 16 to 20 hours per day. KLS usually occurs for the first time after an infection or alcohol use during the teenaged years and is twice as common in males as in females.
KLS is a very rare condition, affecting 1 or 2 of every 1 million people.
Five criteria must be met to make a diagnosis of KLS.5
1. Silber MH, Krahn LE, Olson EJ, Pankratz VS. The epidemiology of narcolepsy in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a population-based study. Sleep. 2002;25(2):197-202.
2. Acquavella J, Mehra R, Bron M, Suomi JM, Hess GP. Prevalence of narcolepsy and other sleep disorders and frequency of diagnostic tests from 2013-2016 in insured patients actively seeking care. J Clin Sleep Med. 2020;16(8):1255-1263.
3. Kallweit U, Nilius G, Trumper D, Vogelmann T, Schubert T. Prevalence, incidence, and health care utilization of patients with narcolepsy: a population-representative study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022.
4. Scheer D, Schwartz SW, Parr M, Zgibor J, Sanchez-Anguiano A, Rajaram L. Prevalence and incidence of narcolepsy in a US health care claims database, 2008-2010. Sleep. 2019;42(7).
5. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Darien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 3rd ed.; 2014.
6. Liu Y, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, al. e. Prevalence of healthy sleep duration among adults: United States, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly. 2016;65(6):137-141.